Petrovietnam Journal An official scientific journal of the Vietnam National Oil and Gas Group en-US Petrovietnam Journal 2615-9902 <p>1. The Author assigns all copyright in and to the article (the Work) to the Petrovietnam Journal, including the right to publish, republish, transmit, sell and distribute the Work in whole or in part in electronic and print editions of the Journal, in all media of expression now known or later developed.</p> <p>2. By this assignment of copyright to the Petrovietnam Journal, reproduction, posting, transmission, distribution or other use of the Work in whole or in part in any medium by the Author requires a full citation to the Journal, suitable in form and content as follows: title of article, authors’ names, journal title, volume, issue, year, copyright owner as specified in the Journal, DOI number. Links to the final article published on the website of the Journal are encouraged.</p> Prospecting for underground natural hydrogen - new energy for the future <p>Hydrogen, accounting for 75% of ordinary matter by mass and over 90% by atomic number, is the third most abundant element on the Earth's surface, mainly in the form of chemical compounds such as water and hydrocarbons. When burned, hydrogen gas (H2) produces heat and water without causing environmental pollution, thus it is expected to be one of the clean energy sources for the future. Industrial hydrogen has so far been mainly produced by thermochemical processes of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, and insignificantly by electrolysis of water. Recent natural hydrogen discoveries recorded in the world, especially the exploration and discovery of relatively pure underground hydrogen which was extracted and used as fuel for a local power generator in Bourakebougou (Mali), show the possibility of prospecting for underground natural hydrogen. The article provides an overview of natural hydrogen discoveries over the world and gives recommendations on the prospecting for underground natural hydrogen in Vietnam.</p> Anh Duc Nguyen Ngoc Trung Phan Copyright (c) 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 4 14 10.47800/PVJ.2021.12-01 Hydrogen supply chain and production technology <p>Hydrogen is forecasted as an energy solution for the future thanks to its advantages of cleanliness, abundance and high energy conversion efficiency. The paper briefly introduces the hydrogen supply chain, hydrogen production technologies prevailing or expected in the future, as well as challenges that need to be addressed for a successful transition to a hydrogen-based economy.</p> Thi Lan Oanh Nguyen Copyright (c) 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 15 22 10.47800/PVJ.2021.12-02 Technologies for production of green hydrogen and hydrogen based synthetic fuels <p>Hydrogen is an essential material/fuel for industry and energy conversion. The processes for producing hydrogen depend on the raw materials and energy source used. In terms of climate impacts, the most promising hydrogen production method is water electrolysis. The regenerative electrolysis process depends on the carbon intensity of the electricity and the efficiency of converting that electricity into hydrogen. The development of technologies to extract hydrogen (from conventional and renewable resources) tends to optimise the water electrolysis process using renewable energies by extending material durability, increasing performance efficiency, and reducing precious metal contents in catalysts, thereby lowering the production costs. The article introduces the latest advances in green hydrogen production technologies using renewable energies, particularly focusing on water and seawater electrolysis, combining electrolysis and solar energy as well as hydrogen-based synthetic fuel production, hydrogen production from biomass and biogas.</p> Van Nhu Nguyen Nhu Tung Truong Copyright (c) 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 23 39 10.47800/PVJ.2021.12-03 Potential market and impact of clean hydrogen development to 2050 in Vietnam <p>Hydrogen plays an important role in the energy transition towards a zero-carbon economy. Blue hydrogen and green hydrogen are potential sources to replace fossil materials and fuels in the fields of refining - petrochemical, production of fertiliser, steel, cement, electricity, and transportation. The potential demand for clean hydrogen in these areas has been evaluated along with the impacts and benefits of hydrogen development. Accordingly, the potential hydrogen market can reach an output of 22 million tons/year by 2050. The development of hydrogen in the fields will create new markets with a total value of USD 100 billion in 2035 and USD 1,200 billion in 2050. In terms of the environment, replacing fossil materials and fuels with hydrogen reduces the total national CO2 emissions by 5.4%. In order to develop and complete the hydrogen value chain in Vietnam, it is necessary to set goals and roadmaps along with appropriate policies. Recognising the importance of hydrogen to the operation of the oil and gas and energy sectors in general, the Vietnam Oil and Gas Group (PVN) has developed a scientific research programme on the development of production, storage, transportation, distribution, and efficient use of hydrogen in Vietnam in the 2021 - 2025 period.</p> Huu Luong Nguyen Copyright (c) 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 40 47 10.47800/PVJ.2021.12-04 Hydrogen application technologies and environmentally friendly smart energy system <p>Climate change and fossil fuel depletion are the main reasons for many countries around the world to develop and implement energy transition strategies. Being a very clean burning fuel (generating steam only), hydrogen will play an important role in the transition from fossil energy to CO2-free energy. The paper introduces recent advances of hydrogen technology applied in transportation, industry, and power generation in the world; challenges regarding hydrogen safety and technology; barriers in social perception; and some recommendations for the development of hydrogen technology and environmentally friendly smart energy systems in Vietnam.</p> Van Nhu Nguyen Nhu Tung Truong Van Thinh Dinh Viet Anh Nguyen Copyright (c) 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 48 64 10.47800/PVJ.2021.12-05 Experiences in long-term operation of a green hydrogen production plant using wind power in Germany - a possible model for Vietnam <p>Hydrogen is considered as "the green fuel of the 21st century" and forecasted to play a leading role in the energy transition. The article introduces the processes of green hydrogen production in Energiepark Mainz, the first wind power hydrogen production plant with a capacity of 6 MW in Germany. The article describes the production, storage, transportation, and consumption (gas, fuel for bus and industries) of green hydrogen through the continuous operation of the plant. Based on that, the author analyses opportunities and challenges when applying Energiepark Mainz's model to the green hydrogen production strategy in Vietnam.</p> Van Thinh Dinh Copyright (c) 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 65 69 10.47800/PVJ.2021.12-06 Objective factors and policies of countries affecting hydrogen market development <p>By 2050, blue hydrogen (produced by SMR method using CCS technology to capture CO2) will make up about 18% of hydrogen supply, whilst green hydrogen from solar power will account for 16%, from onshore wind power 16% and offshore wind power 9%. Global hydrogen demand is forecasted to increase to about 150 million tons by 2040 [1]. The article analyses the objective factors (i.e. size and structure of the economy, technological and social barriers) and policies of countries that affect hydrogen market development.</p> Ba Nam Pham Thi Ngoan Nghiem Minh Phuong Dao Thi Lan Oanh Nguyen Hien Trang Ta Linh Chi Tran Copyright (c) 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 12 70 82 10.47800/PVJ.2021.12-07 Phu My NPK in 2021: PVFCCo reached the target 35 days in advance <p><strong>PetroVietnam Fertilizers and Chemicals Corporation - JSC (PVFCCo, stock code: DPM) said that on November 26, 2021, the accumulated Phu My NPK output has reached the milestone of 150,000 tons, reaching the production target of the year 35 days earlier than planned.</strong><br>This number is particularly meaningful in 2021 when PVFCCo has performed periodic general maintenance of Phu My NPK Plant while simultaneously coped with difficulties caused by severe outbreak of the Covid-19 epidemic such as the compulsory implementation of the “3 on-site" production mode, significant increase in the cost of raw materials, labor, logistics, etc. worldwide.<br>Not only developing in production output, Phu My NPK Plant keeps improving and upgrading its product quality, continuously researching new production formulas to diversify NPK Phu My product chain and provide optimal nutrition to each growing stage of plants.<br>The growth of Phu My NPK production has helped PVFCCo have more key product lines besides the traditional Phu My urea product, increase fertilizer supply to the market, and optimize its business performance in 2021.<br>Phu My NPK Plant is the first project in Vietnam using chemical technology of Incro SA (Spain). The 250,000 tons/year plant has been put into operation since 2018.<br>Vietnam Report JSC. (Vietnam Report) in collaboration with VietnamNet News have announced the VNR500 Ranking - Top 500 largest enterprises in Vietnam - in 2021. This is the 15th consecutive year that the VNR500 Ranking has been published to honor the largest enterprises attaining remarkable production and business achievements in Vietnam.<br>According to the VNR500 in 2021, PVFCCo is in the Top 500 Largest Enterprises in Vietnam for the 15th time. PVFCCo is ranked 122nd in the Best Profit Ranking and 159th in the Revenue Ranking. With this result, PVFCCo continues to maintain its position as the leading enterprise in Vietnam in the fertilizer production and trading industry.</p> Thu Tra Copyright (c) 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 12